Natural Sciences

Menshikov logo

Idiotype-based Mechanisms of Immunoregulation

Group leader: Prof. Igor V. Menshikov, Chair, Dept. of Immunology and Cell Biology


Research abstract: The scientific school is represented mainly by the staff of the Department of Immunology and Cell Biology of Udmurt State University. Currently, the department has 3 doctors of sciences, graduate students, applicants and engineers. We conduct research with students who specialize in the Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, undergraduates studying under the programs "Immunobiotechnology" and "Cell Biology". The department has two laboratories: an experimental immunology laboratory and an immunohistochemistry laboratory. Applied research and teaching practice are conducted on the basis of LLC Immunodiagnostics and LLC New Vaccines.

The general conceptual basis of the fundamental and applied research is the idea of the key role of idiotype-anti-idiotypic interactions between lymphocytes in the mechanisms of specific regulation of the immune response, in the control of autoreactivity, the establishment and maintenance of natural tolerance.

Research Areas • Causes and mechanisms of the development of autoimmune diseases. The nature and role of subpopulations of rheumatoid factor in the regulation of autoreactivity. • Mathematical modeling and computer studies of the idiotype-anti-idiotypic interactions. • An experimental model of atherosclerosis in rats caused by immunization with native human LDL. • The mechanisms of induction and development of atherosclerosis. • Search for markers of systemic disorders of immune surveillance leading to tumor development. • The mechanisms of development of immunodeficiency in HIV infection. • Development of a vaccine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. • Development of technology for the diagnosis and treatment of miscarriage of an immune nature. • Mechanisms for establishing tolerance to the fetus.

Key publications:

  1. Menshikov I., Beduleva L., Frolov M., Abisheva N., Khramova T., Stolyarova E., Fomina K. The idiotypic network in the regulation of autoimmunity. Theoretical and experimental studies. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2014.10.00 3 Импакт-фактор по Web of Science 2.303
  2. Beduleva L., Menshikov I., Stolyarova E., Fomina K., Lobanova O., Ivanov P. and Terentiev A. Rheumatoid factor in idiotypic regulation of autoimmunity. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases. 2014. DOI: 10.1111/1756–185X.12335. Импакт-фактор по Web of Science 1.771
  3. Beduleva L., Menshikov I. Role of idiotype-anti-idiotype interactions in the induction of collagen-induced arthritis in rats. Immunobiology. 2010. Vol. 215. № 12. P. 963–970. doi: 10.1016/j.imbio.2009.12.001 . Импакт-фактор по Web of Science 3.356
  4. Menshikov I., Beduleva L. Evidence in favor of a role of idiotypic network in autoimmune hemolytic anemia induction: theoretical and experimental studies// International Immunology. 2008. Vol. 20. № 2. Р. 193–198.


Shlyk logo

Evaluation of the Athletes’ Training Process Based on Express-Analysis of Heart Rate Variability

Group leader: Prof. Natalia I. Shlyk, Chair, Dept. of Health Science and Medical-Biological Foundations of Physical Culture

e-mail: ,

Research abstract: The daily express analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) allows you to have a clear idea of the individual boundaries of the regulatory and reserve capabilities and the level of recovery of the body, which can be used when planning training loads and predicting sports results. Based on the daily express analysis of HRV, a new approach has been developed to assess the risk of overtraining and deviations in the health status of athletes when training loads do not match the individual state of cardioregulatory systems. When analyzing the results of studies of HRV, it is important to take into account the individual typological features of autonomic regulation. It was established that the same training loads without taking into account the individual typological features of regulatory systems lead to overtraining primarily in athletes with low reserve capabilities. It has been shown that overtraining is associated with disadaptation, as a result of which a stable pathological portrait of cardioregulatory systems is formed. It was revealed that there is a lack of correction of training loads in athletes with different types of regulation when transferring the same training regime from the plain to the middle mountains, which leads to a disturbance of the vegetative balance already in the first and subsequent training cycles. Balanced regulation according to HRV analysis allows you to maximize the use of functional and reserve capabilities in training, regardless of the conditions in which they are carried out (plain or midlands). A high sports result can be achieved only in the absence of dysregulatory manifestations and in the presence of optimal adaptive-reserve capabilities of cardioregulatory systems.

Key publications


Tuganaev logo

Structural-Dynamic Regularities of Ecosystems of Viatka-Volga Western Urals Region

Group leader: Prof. Viktor V. Tuganaev, Dept. of Ecology and Natural Resources Management


Research abstract: The research deals with structural and dynamic patterns and evolution of ecosystems. Analysis of systems of different levels and scales - from the Universe to elementary ecosystems - allows to better understand both the general and particular laws of their structure and dynamics. Of particular importance is the consideration from the ecosystem position of the problem of micro- and macroevolution, historical flora- and coenogenesis, the spread of the anthropic principle in assessing the place of man in the evolutionary picture of the world order. Currently, there is a need to discuss the problems of the connection between man and nature from the standpoint of noospherology, which broadens and deepens ideas about ecosystems not only as biological and ecological objects, but also about phenomena that have qualities that have spiritual, cultural, cognitive and educational value.

The research topics include macro- and microevolution, flora and biogenesis, and the evolution of anthropogenic ecosystems.

The fundamental and guiding principles of research are the ideas that evolution is predetermined, it is carried out on a software basis, deploying in an ascending line from simple to complex, from inorganic to organic, from the latter to the biological form of matter, which served as the basis for the emergence of the higher form of matter - consciousness, the carrier of which is a person. Macroevolutionary processes occurring in the biosphere are considered as a phenomenon related to terrestrial-cosmic relations, and microevolution has little to do with its own evolution, being a form of adaptation to environmental conditions. In contrast to the evolution of organisms, natural and anthropogenic ecosystems are associated with factors of terrestrial nature, especially nowadays, in connection with the increased human impact on the environment.

The aim of the research is to establish the laws and factors of the evolution of biosystems of different levels and scales, as well as structural and dynamic features of natural and anthropogenic ecosystems.

Research objectives

  1. To develop the concept of world order, based on the idea of the software conditioning of evolution and the evolutionary inevitability of the emergence of the mind.
  2. To substantiate the causes of extinction and renewal of biota in geological time as a change in bioprograms, the formation of which are related to both terrestrial and cosmic factors.
  3. To prove the idea that microevolutionary processes occurring in populations are only the norm of the existence of organisms and are not directly related to the nature of speciation.
  4. From the standpoint of the theory of symbiogenesis, consider the problems of florogenesis and adaptation.
  5. Guided by the idea of the presence in nature of “quick reaction forces” that manifest themselves in environmental disruptions, consider the problem of adventitization and synanthropization of vegetation cover and ecosystems.
  6. From noospheric positions and using data from the analysis of paleoethnobotanical and phytocenotic materials, consider the history of agroecosystems of the Vyatka-Kama Urals and the Middle Volga.
  7. Upon receipt of orders, carry out applied research on the socio-environmental optimization of natural and anthropogenic ecosystems.

Research methods: comparative evolutionary, laboratory-field (collection and analysis of plants from different populations), paleoethnobotanical (botanical analysis of fruits and seeds from archaeological sites), agrochemical (analysis of cultivated soil), morphological (morphometric analysis of plants from different populations), geobotanical (compilation of qualified lists of plants of various agrophytocenoses), genetic (determination of the number of chromosomes in the studied plants), morphological and anatomical (study of mycorrhiza in a team hedgehog collected from different habitats).

Research results should prove the correctness of the concept, the content of which is set out in the introductory part of the text.

Key publications


Bukharina logo

The study of the system of plants adaptive reactions to biotic and abiotic stresses

Group leader: Prof. Irina L. Bukharina, Dean (Director), Institute of Civil Defense


Research abstract: The reaserch aims at describing the living state and physiological characteristics of individual plant species that dominate the dendroflora of the city of Izhevsk, a large industrial center of the Ural region. The dust-absorbing capacity, oxygen productivity, carbon dioxide absorption volumes, carbon deposited by forests of various types in the suitable zone of Izhevsk were calculated, the concepts of the "Green Frame" of the suburban territory and the landscaping concept of the city of Izhevsk (2017) were developed.

In different ecological types of plantings of the city, a comparative analysis of the reaction of the pigment system of European spruce and prickly spruce to the conditions of technogenic stress is carried out. The seed productivity of these species, especially the formation of the root system, were investigated.

DNA analysis of samples of the root system of woody plants and soils was carried out, which showed that the greatest species diversity of micromycetes is characteristic of soils with a high content of heavy metals. A collection of fungal species isolated from the root system of woody plants has been prepared. Sequenced DNA isolates. The limits of endurance of isolates of certain species of fungi to the action of different concentrations of salts, including heavy metals, were revealed.

In recent years, studies have been carried out on the inoculation of woody plants and crops with isolates (cultures) of symbiotrophic micromycetes in order to increase the tolerance of plants to salinization, temperature stress, and water deficiency. Studies are being conducted on the use of consortia of plants, microorganisms and micromycetes for the purification and restoration of oil-contaminated and disturbed lands.

The team has prepared more than 200 articles, 5 monographs, an illustrated atlas of pests and diseases of woody plants in the plantings of the city. Two research projects were carried out under a contract with the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of the Udmurt Republic. The research was supported by grants: “Universities of Russia”; RFBR “My first grant” (project number 14-04-31909, 2014-2015; project number 16-34-00855, 2016-2017); RFBR No. 19-34-50037 mol_nr “Status and features of adaptive reactions of species of the spruce genus in spruce plantations of various forest zones” (2019); RFBR No. 19-04-00353 “Study of the condition and stability of dark coniferous plantations in the forest zone of the Urals by the example of the genus Picea” (2019-2021).

The studies were supported by Russian and international grants: the Erasmus Mundus program (Germany, Humboldt University, 2011); Fulbright programs (USA, University of Washington, 2012-2013); Erasmus Aurora programs (Germany, Leibniz Research Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, 2013-3014); DAAD programs (Germany, Leibniz Research Institute of Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, 2014, 2016); 4 grants of the “UMNIK” program of the Fund for Assistance to the Development of Small Forms of Enterprises in the Scientific and Technical Sphere (2013-2014; 2015-2016; 2016-2017; 2019 -2020); programs for the allocation of scholarships of the President of the Russian Federation for students and post-graduate students to study abroad (2014-2015); scholarships of the fund V.I. Vernadsky (2016); within the framework of the Agreement between the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic on cooperation in the field of education of November 7, 2006 (Zvolen, Sovakia, 2017).

A method for maceration of leaf linden leaf tissue has been developed (Patent No. 2601813). An application for a patent has been prepared (No. 2018127310 dated July 25, 2018 “A method for the preparation and application of mushroom biological product to increase plant resistance”).

Partners: Zvolen Technical University (Slovak Republic); Leibniz-Institute for Vegetable and Ornamental Crops, Berlin (Germany); “Symbiogenics” laboratory, Washington University, Seattle (USA)

Key publications:

  1. Bukharina I., Franken Ph., Kamasheva A., Vedernikov K., Islamova N. About the species composition of microscopic fungi in soils and woody plant roots in urban environment // International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and Research. − 2016.− Т. 7, № 4. −P. 1386-1394. (Scopus, WoS)
  2. Kuzmin P.A., Bukharina I.L., Kuzmina A.M. The activity of copper-containing enzymes in the birch leaves in the conditions of the built environment // International Journal Of Pharmacy & Technology. June-2016. − Vol. 8. − Issue No.4. − P. 24608-24614. (Scopus);
  3. Pavlik M., Kmet J., Bukharina I., Sulekova M. Macromycetes spectrum under conditions of forest stands of Prosisko nature reserve (Slovak republic) // 17-th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geoconference (SGEM 2017). 29.06-5.07.2017. (Section Forest Ecosystem). - Albena, Bulgaria. - P. 891-898 (Scopus);
  4. Bukharina I.L., Vedernikov K.E., Pashkova A.S. Morphophysiologic Traits of Spruce Trees in Conditions of Izhevsk // Contemporary Problems of Ecology. - 2016. - Vol. 9, No. 7. - Р. 853–862. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016. Original Russian Text © I.L. Bukharina, K.E. Vedernikov, A.S. Pashkova, 2016, published in Lesovedenie, 2016, No. 2, pp. 96–106. (WoS);
  5. K. Ye. Vedernikov, I. L. Bukharina Peculiarities of Seeding of Species of the Genus Picea in the Urban Plantations (by way of the example of the city of Izhevsk) // Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. – 2016. − № 7(1). – Р. 2200-2207 (Scopus);;
  6. Bukharina L., Islamova N.A., and Lebedeva M.A., (2018), “Species of Fungi in the Root System of Woody Plants in Urban Plantations” in The fourth International Scientific Conference on Ecology and Geography of Plants and Plant Communities, KnE Life Sciences, pages 49–55. DOI 10.18502/kls.v4i7.3219. (WoS)